History of heating supply system in Azerbaijan

The history of heating supply system is related to the history of electricity in Azerbaijan. The White City station built in March, 1902, renamed as the Red Star station in 1923. The urgent period of its activity occurred in 1937-1939. The station was completely enhanced thanks to the setting of latest equipment.

After the WW2 due to the absence of heating lines the station worked in the regime of condensation. In November, 1950, the industrial power of the heating turbine started to be exploited which meant that the station was producing the combined energy both heating and electricity.        

At first, the neighboring oil producing plants were provided with steam, thence the station became a heating center. It was a starting point for the centralized heating supply system in Azerbaijan. Despite its initial purposes to provide the neighboring oil producing plants with steam, afterwards the heating supply was available for other users thanks to the enhancement of networks of engineering communications.        

Certainly, buildings were being heated even before the emergence of the centralized heating supply system. The speedy development of cities, the construction of modern abodes and social buildings by inviting foreign highly qualified architectures, the foundation of offices and companies belonged to local and foreign entrepreneurs due to the rapid development of the oil industry demanded to arrange other heating solutions.  

The widespread heating systems for that period were local and inner heating boiler houses which worked mainly on fuel oil and were in a position to heat just a couple of buildings. Additional heating systems were fireplaces installed into walls and other furnaces working on woods, oil and other fuels.  

This form of heating supply was a milestone for the future of the heating supply system in Baku.  

When Soviets swept into power the boiler houses which belonged to property owners earlier were passed to relevant entities engaged at housing. The United Boiler Houses and Heating Networks Administration was established in 1965. In 1977, all the heating bodies existing in Baku were passed to the BakiIstilikshebeke enterprise in accordance with the Decision of the Executive Committee of the Council of the People`s Deputies.     

Previously, the Ministry of Public Utilities and, following its liquidation, the Heat and Power Engineering Association under the State Architecture Committee, were responsible for the maintenance of the existing heating supply facilities. 

Besides these heat supply facilities, there were also mechanical or boiler rooms operating under different ministries and organizations. They were mainly designed to provide heat supply to residential and social services operated under the ministries and organizations.

Since the 60s of the last century, due to the construction of new residential units in Baku and other industrial cities, a new district heating system and boiler rooms with boiler plants that were modern at the time.

Particularly, there was a lot of significant changes happened in the field of heating supply from 1965 to 1980. In this period, the Area Heating Boiler House (AHBH) №1 with power of 200 kcal was built in the northwest of Baku. At the same time, AHBH №2 of 100 kcal, AHBH №3 of 150 kcal, AHBH №5 of 150 kcal, AHBH №6 of 100 kcal and AHBH №9 of 120 kcal were constructed in Garasheher, the Darnaghul settlement, the Narimanov industry district, the Akhmedly and Gunashly settlements, respectively. In this regard, over 100 local boiler rooms stopped to be exploited. Thus, the Heating Electricity District №1 and №2 in Baku, the Heating Electricity District №1 and №2 in Sumgayit and the Heating Electricity District in Ganja started to fulfill a vital role in the heating supply system.        

As of 1980s, up to 65% of heating supply just in the Baku City was provided at the expense of area heating boiler rooms. In order to manage these fields and provide technical service the Heating Networks and Boiler Rooms Enterprise was established under the Azerenergy in 1974. It consisted of area heating boiler houses with power over 50 kcal, relevant heating lines, as well as related boiler houses and heating networks` equipment.      

The Executive Order “On Energy Carriers Supply Improvement for Population and Economy” signed by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2000 implied a number of crucial steps to be taken in order to improve demands for energy carriers throughout the country. A part of those measures was related to the heating supply. In accordance with that Executive Order, the Heating Networks and Boiler Rooms Enterprise was passed to the Baku City Executive Power to centralize activities of all the heating supply enterprises. Thus, the Baku City Executive Power was empowered to take urgent matters for restoring the heating systems in the Baku City.

As per the Executive Order “On Management Improving in the Field of Energy Supply in the Republic of Azerbaijan” №847 dated to the 8th of June and signed by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, was established the Azeristiliktajhizat Open Society, which is to improve the reliable and qualitative heating supply services for population and other consumers. This field should be gradually and effectively developed in line with the market economy principles by providing with investments. Azeristiliktajhizat is liable for heating supply works to be performed in houses and buildings, as well as other infrastructure in the Republic of Azerbaijan.